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Sexualization (or sexualisation) is to make something sexual in character or quality, or to become aware of sexuality,[1][2] especially in relation to men and women. Sexualization is linked to sexual objectification. The term “sexualization” itself only emerged in Anglophone discourse in recent decades. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, the term was infrequently drawn upon by English writers to refer the assignation of a gendered frame to a particular object, such as the gendering of nouns (e.g., de Quincey [1839]1909, 195). In contrast, the term “asexualization” saw greater use, as a synonym for sterilization in eugenics discourse from around the turn of the twentieth century. According to the American Psychological Association, sexualization occurs when "individuals are regarded as sex objects and evaluated in terms of their physical characteristics and sexiness."[3] "In study after study, findings have indicated that women more often than men are portrayed in a sexual manner (e.g., dressed in revealing clothing, with bodily postures or facial expressions that imply sexual readiness) and are objectified (e.g., used as a decorative object, or as body parts rather than a whole person). In addition, a narrow (and unrealistic) standard of physical beauty is heavily emphasized. These are the models of femininity presented for young girls to study and emulate."[4] According to the Media Education Foundation, the sexualization of girls in media, and the ways women are portrayed in the dominant culture, is detrimental to the development of young girls as they are developing their identities and understanding themselves as sexual beings.[5]

Reports have found that sexualization of younger children is becoming increasingly more common in advertisements.[6] Research has linked sexualization of young girls to negative consequences for girls and society as a whole, finding that the viewing of sexually objectifying material can contribute to body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, low self-esteem, depression and depressive affect. Medical and social science researchers generally deployed “sexualization” to refer to a liminal zone between sexual abuse and normal family life, in which the child's relationship with their parents was characterized by an “excessive,” improper sexuality, though without recognizable forms of abuse having occurred.[4] American Psychological Association also argues that the sexualization of young girls contributes to sexist attitudes within society, and a societal tolerance of sexual violence.[4]

From 2003 to 2005, “sexualization” began to ascend to the status of an issue in the public eye. The cause of this rise was that it became positioned by a number of discursive actors as a feminist issue. This is not to say that a single “feminist perspective on sexualization” emerged in this period; among discursive actors mobilizing feminist discourses, or identifying themselves explicitly with feminism, there were a host of different views. Yet a particular, relatively cohesive position emerged after 2003 among a number of media discourses: these discourses tended to emphasize that, in the context of a commercialized and sexist culture, young women are unable to exercise meaningful choice even when they experience themselves as doing so. These media actors, in their problematization of sexualization, positioned themselves as the true heirs to the feminist tradition and its critical insights, in contrast to contemporary youth.

Consumerism and globalization has led to sexualization of girls occurring across all advanced economies, in media and advertisements, to clothing and toys marketed for young girls.[4]


Name of report Country Year Reference
Corporate paedophilia: sexualisation of children in Australia Australia 2006 [7]
Sexualised goods aimed at children: Report for the Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Scotland, UK 2009 [8]
Report of the American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls USA 2010 [4]
Sexualisation of young people : review (Home Office) UK 2010 [9]
Letting children be children : report of an independent review of the commercialisation and sexualisation of childhood ('The Bailey Review') UK 2011 [10]

Effects on Children[edit]

In 2006, an Australian report called Corporate paedophilia: sexualisation of children in Australia[7] was published. The Australian report summarises its conclusion as follows:

Images of sexualised children are becoming increasingly common in advertising and marketing material. Children who appear aged 12 years and under are dressed, posed and made up in the same way as sexy adult models. "Corporate paedophilia" is a metaphor used to describe advertising and marketing that sexualises children in these ways.

In 2007, the American Psychological Association published a report titled Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls, discussed below.

In 2012, an American study found that self-sexualization was common among 6–9-year old girls. Girls overwhelmingly chose the sexualized doll over the non-sexualized doll for their ideal self and as popular. However other factors, such as how often mothers talked to their children about what is going on in TV shows and maternal religiosity, reduced those odds. Surprisingly, the mere quantity of girls’ media consumption (TV and movies) was unrelated to their self-sexualization for the most part; rather, maternal self-objectification and maternal religiosity moderated its effects.[11]

However, in 2010 the Scottish Executive released a report titled External research on sexualised goods aimed at children.[8] The report considers the drawbacks of the United States and Australian reviews, concluding:

[T]here is no indication [in the APA report] that the media might contain any positive images about human relationships, or that children might critically evaluate what they see.

The Scottish review also notes that:

[s]uch accounts often present the sexualisation of children as a relatively recent development, but it is by no means a new issue … While the public visibility of the issue, and the terms in which it is defined, may have changed, sexualised representations of children cannot be seen merely as a consequence of contemporary consumerism.

It also notes that previous coverage "rests on moral assumptions … that are not adequately explained or justified."[12]

Letting Children be Children: Report of an Independent Review of the Commercialisation and Sexualisation of Childhood (UK) The report 'Letting Children Be Children',[10] also known as the Bailey Report, is a report commissioned by the UK government on the subject of the commercialisation and sexualisation of childhood. The report was published in June 2011 and was commissioned as a result of concerns raised as to whether children's lives are negatively affected by the effects of commercialisation and sexualisation.[13]

The Bailey Report is so-called as it was researched and compiled by Reg Bailey, the Chief Executive of the Mothers' Union,[14] a "charity supporting parents and children in 83 countries in the world".[10] The report asked for contributions from parents; children; organisations; businesses and the general public in order to consider their views and inform their recommendations and identified four themes that were of particular concern to parents and the wider public. These themes were:

  • 1) the 'wallpaper' of children's lives
  • 2) clothing, products and services for children
  • 3) children as consumers
  • 4) making parents' voices heard

The report returned recommendations based on the research from interested parties, on each of the key themes, in the form of 'what we would like to see'. On the theme of 'the wallpaper of children's lives' it said that it would like to see that sexualised images used in public places should be more in line with what parents find acceptable, to ensure that images in public spaces becomes more child friendly. On theme two 'clothing, products and services for children' the Bailey report said that it would like to see retailers no longer selling or marketing inappropriate clothing, products or services for children. What they would like to see on theme three 'children as consumers' is comprehensive regulation protecting children from excessive commercial pressures across all media in-line with parental expectations; that marketers are ethical and do not attempt to exploit gaps in the market to influence children into becoming consumers and to ensure that parents and children have an awareness of marketing techniques and regulations. Finally in terms of 'making parents voices heard' it would like to see parents finding it easier to voice their concerns to, and be listened to by, businesses and regulators.[10]

There is a motion for a European Parliament resolution going through which gives the following definition of sexualization:

[S]exualization consists of an instrumental approach to a person by perceiving that person as an object for sexual use disregarding the person's dignity and personality traits, with the person's worth being measured in terms of the level of sexual attractiveness; sexualization also involves the imposition of the sexuality of adult persons on girls, who are emotionally, psychologically and physically unprepared for this at their particular stage of development; sexualization[note 1] not being the normal, healthy, biological development of the sexuality of a person, conditioned by the individual process of development and taking place at the appropriate time for each particular individual.[15]

Reporter: Joanna Skrzydlewska, Member of the European Parliament

Effects on Women of Color[edit]

Sexualization of women of color even though is present in todays society, due to how sexualization is globally generalized focusing mainly on the sexualization of white women ,women of color have been excluded. the article written by Shantyana Lledin titled “I'm Not Your Spicy Latina” the sexualization of latin women is not only “ masked but also marketed (Lledin, 2012)”. Saartjie Baartman is an early example of sexualization of a black woman. She was toured around Europe as a freak show attraction due to her large buttocks and sexual organs.[16]

In an NPR interview with Professor Herbert Samuels at LaGuardia Community College in New York and Mireille Miller-Young a professor at UC Santa Barbara they talk about sexual stereotypes of black bodies in America and how even in sex work, already a dangerous job, black women are treated much worse than their counterparts due to the effects of their oversexualization and objectification in society.[17]

Culture and Media[edit]

Sexualization has also been a subject of debate for academics who work in media and cultural studies. Here, the term has not been used to simply to label what is seen as a social problem, but to indicate the much broader and varied set of ways in which sex has become more visible in media and culture.[18] These include; the widespread discussion of sexual values, practices and identities in the media;[19] the growth of sexual media of all kinds; for example, erotica, slash fiction, sexual self-help books and the many genres of pornography; the emergence of new forms of sexual experience, for example instant message or avatar sex made possible by developments in technology; a public concern with the breakdown of consensus about regulations for defining and dealing with obscenity; the prevalence of scandals, controversies and panics around sex in the media.[20][21]

The terms pornification and pornographication have also been used to describe the way that aesthetics that were previously associated with pornography have become part of popular culture, and that mainstream media texts and other cultural practices ‘citing pornographic styles, gestures and aesthetics’ have become more prominent.[22] This process, which Brian McNair has described as a 'pornographication of the mainstream'.[23] has developed alongside an expansion of the cultural realm of pornography or 'pornosphere' which itself has become more accessible to a much wider variety of audiences. According to McNair, both developments can be set in the context of a wider shift towards a 'striptease culture' which has disrupted the boundaries between public and private discourse in late modern Western culture, and which is evident more generally in cultural trends which privilege lifestyle, reality, interactivity, self-revelation and public intimacy.[23]

American Psychological Association view[edit]


The American Psychological Association (APA) in its 2007 Report looked at the cognitive and emotional consequences of sexualization and the consequences for mental and physical health, and impact on development of a healthy sexual self-image.[4] The report considers that a person is sexualized in the following situations:

  • a person’s value comes only from his or her sexual appeal or sexual behavior, to the exclusion of other characteristics;
  • a person is held to a standard that equates physical attractiveness (narrowly defined) with being sexy;
  • a person is sexually objectified—that is, made into a thing for others’ sexual use, rather than seen as a person with the capacity for independent action and decision making; and/or
  • sexuality is inappropriately imposed upon a person.[4]


Some cultural critics have postulated that over recent decades children have evidenced a level of sexual knowledge or sexual behaviour inappropriate for their age group.[24]

The causes of this premature sexualization that have been cited include portrayals in the media of sex and related issues, especially in media aimed at children; the marketing of products with sexual connotations to children, including clothing;[25] the lack of parental oversight and discipline; access to adult culture via the internet; and the lack of comprehensive school sex education programs.[4][26]

For girls and young women in particular, the APA reports that studies have found that sexualization has a negative impact on their "self-image and healthy development".[4]

The APA cites the following as advertising techniques that contribute to the sexualization of girls:[4]

  • Including girls in ads with sexualized women wearing matching clothing or posed seductively,
  • Dressing girls up to look like adult women. Such as child beauty pageants that encourage girls as young as toddlers to wear tight fitted clothing, high heels, and fake eyelashes.[27]
  • Dressing women down to look like young girls. This is also known as the infantilization of women.
  • The employment of youthful celebrity adolescents in highly sexual ways to promote or endorse products.

Media influence on children and societal impacts[edit]

Children and adolescents spend more time engaging with media than any other age group. This is a time in their life that they are more susceptible to information that they receive. Children are getting sex education from the media, little kids are exposed to sexualized images and more information than ever before in human history but are not able to process the information, they are not developmentally ready to process it, and this impacts their development and behavior.[5]

Sexualization of young girls in the media and infantilization of women creates an environment where it becomes more acceptable to view children as "seductive and sexy".[5] It makes having healthy sexual relationships more difficult for people and creates sexist attitudes. Sexualization also contributes to sexual violence and childhood sexual abuse "where 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys are sexually abused during childhood".[5]

Cognitive and emotional consequences[edit]

Studies have found that thinking about the body and comparing it to sexualized cultural ideals may disrupt a girl's mental concentration, and a girl's sexualization or objectification may undermine her confidence in and comfort with her own body, leading to emotional and self-image problems, such as shame and anxiety.[4]

Research has linked sexualization with three of the most common mental health problems diagnosed in girls and women: eating disorders, low self-esteem, and depression or depressed mood.[4]

Research suggests that the sexualization of girls has negative consequences on girls' ability to develop a healthy sexual self-image.[4]

A result of the sexualization of girls in the media is that young girls are "learning how to view themselves as sex objects".[3] When girls fail to meet the thin ideal and dominant culture’s standard of beauty they can develop anxieties.[3] Sexualization is problematic for young children who are developing their sexual identity as they may think that turning themselves into sex objects is empowering and related to having sexual agency.[5]

Products for children[edit]

Some commercial products seen as promoting the sexualization of children have drawn considerable media attention:

  • Bratz Baby Dolls marketed at 6-year-old girls that feature sexualized clothing, like fishnet stockings, feather boas, and miniskirts [3]
  • Highly sexualized and gendered Halloween costumes marketed at young girls, such as the "sexy firefighter", a costume that consists of a tight fitted mini dress and high heeled boots.[28]
  • Girls aged 10 and 11 wearing thongs in primary school.[29]
  • Clothing such T-shirts being marketed for young children in preschool and elementary school with printed slogans like "So Many Boys So Little Time"[5]
  • Padded bras on bikinis aimed at seven-year-old girls.[30] Some people regard training bras similarly. However, there is also evidence that with the mean age of puberty declining in Western cultures, functional brassieres are required by a higher percentage of preteen girls than before.[31]

The Scottish Executive report[8] surveyed 32 High street UK retailers and found that many of the larger chains, including Tesco, Debenhams, JJ Sports, and Marks & Spencer did not offer sexualized goods aimed at children. The report noted that overall prevalence was limited but this was based on a very narrow research brief. Whilst this shows that not all High street retailers were aiming products deemed sexualized by the researchers, the research cannot be taken out of context and used to say that there is not an issue of sexualization.[original research?]


The Australian writers, Catharine Lumby and Kath Albury (2010)[32] have suggested that sexualization is "a debate that has been simmering for almost a decade" and concerns about sex and the media are far from new. Much of the recent writing on sexualization has been the subject of criticism that because of the way that it draws on "one-sided, selective, overly simplifying, generalizing, and negatively toned" evidence[33] and is "saturated in the languages of concern and regulation".[34] In these writings and the widespread press coverage that they have attracted, critics state that the term is often used as "a non-sequitur causing everything from girls flirting with older men to child sex trafficking"[35] They believe that the arguments often ignore feminist work on media, gender and the body and present a very conservative and negative view of sex in which only monogamous heterosexual sexuality is regarded as normal.[36] They say that the arguments tend to neglect any historical understanding of the way sex has been represented and regulated, and they often ignore both theoretical and empirical work on the relationship between sex and media, culture and technology.[8][35]

The sexualization of women being influenced by society is a problem that should be avoided due to its impact on how women value and present themselves. The way society shapes ones personal interest is presented in a book review of “Girls Gone Skank”, by Patrice Oppliger,[37] Amanda Mills states that “consequently, girls are socialized to participate in their own abuse by becoming avid consumers of and altering their behavior to reflect sexually exploitative images and goods.".[38] The belief that women are powerful and fully capable as men is stated in the text "Uses Of The Erotic: The Erotic As Power" by Audre Lorde stating that the suppression of the erotic of women has led them feeling superior to men "the superficially, erotic had been encouraged as a sign of female inferiority on the other hand women have been made to suffer and to feel opposed contemptible and suspect by virtue of its existence".[39]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ As opposed to its meaning in relation to human sexuality.


  1. ^ Staff writer. "Sexualization (definition)". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  2. ^ Staff writer. "Sexualize". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d Dewar, Gwen (October 2012). "The sexualization of girls: Is the popular culture harming our kids?". Parenting Science. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m APA Task Force (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. OCLC 123130352.  Pdf.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Jean Kilbourne (writer/presenter), Sut Jhally (director) and David Rabinovitz (2010). Killing Us Softly 4: Advertising's Image of Women (Video). Northampton, Massachusetts: Media Education Foundation.  Details.
  6. ^ O'Donohue, William; Gold, Steven R.; McKay, J. Sean (October 1997). "Children as sexual objects: historical and gender trends in magazines". Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment (Sage) 9 (4): 291–301. doi:10.1177/107906329700900403. 
  7. ^ a b Rush, Emma; La Nauze, Andrea (2006). Corporate paedophilia: the sexualisation of children in Australia (discussion paper number 90). Canberra: The Australian Institute. ISSN 1322-5421. OCLC 156752334.  Pdf version.
  8. ^ a b c d Buckingham, D., Bragg, S., Russell, R. and Willett, R. 2009. Sexualised goods aimed at children. Report for the Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. The Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  9. ^ Papadopoulos, L. (2010). Sexualisation of young people : review. Great Britain: UK Home Office. ISBN 9781849871860. 
  10. ^ a b c d Bailey, Reg (2011). Letting children be children: report of an independent review of the commercialisation and sexualisation of childhood. London: The Stationery Office. ISBN 9780101807821.  Pdf.
  11. ^ Starr, Christine; Ferguson, Gail (October 2012). "Sexy dolls, sexy grade-schoolers? Media & maternal influences on young girls' self-sexualization". Sex Roles (Springer) 67 (7–8): 463–476. doi:10.1007/s11199-012-0183-x. 
  12. ^ Mayo, Ed; Nairn, Agnes (2009). Consumer kids: how big business is grooming our children for profit. London: Constable. ISBN 9781845298807. 
  13. ^ NSPCC (2011). Premature sexualisation: understanding the risks: outcomes of the NSPCC's expert seminar series. London: NSPCC.  Pdf.
  14. ^ "Home page". Mothers' Union. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  15. ^ Skrzydlewska, Joanna. "Draft report on the sexualization of girls (2012/2047 (INI))" (PDF). European Parliament Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality. PR\904064EN.doc. Retrieved 1 March 2013. 
  16. ^ Elkins, Caroline (14 January 2007). "A life exposed". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  17. ^ Farai Chideya (host/producer), Herbert Samuels (guest) and Mireille Miller-Young (guest) (7 May 2007). Sex stereotypes of African Americans have long history (Radio program). NPR news. NPR. Retrieved 9 December 2015.  Transcript.
  18. ^ Attenborough, Frederick T. (November 2011). "Complicating the sexualization thesis: The media, gender and 'sci-candy'". Discourse & Society (Sage) 22 (6): 659–675. doi:10.1177/0957926511411693.  Online.
  19. ^ Attenborough, Frederick T. (2013). "Discourse analysis and sexualisation: a study of scientists in the media". Critical Discourse Studies (Taylor and Francis) 10 (2): 223–236. doi:10.1080/17405904.2012.736704.  Online.
  20. ^ Attwood, Feona (February 2006). "Sexed up: theorizing the sexualization of culture". Sexualities (Sage) 9 (1): 77–94. doi:10.1177/1363460706053336.  Pdf.
  21. ^ Attwood, Feona (2009). Mainstreaming sex the sexualization of Western culture. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1845118278. 
  22. ^ Paasonen, Susanna; Nikunen, Kaarina; Saarenmaa, Laura (2007). Pornification: sex and sexuality in media culture. Oxford New York: Berg. ISBN 9781845207045. 
  23. ^ a b McNair, Brian (2002). Striptease culture sex, media and the democratization of desire. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415237345. 
  24. ^ Kaeser, Fred (30 October 2001). Towards a better understanding of children's sexual behavior (pdf). NYU Child Study Center. We know that exposure to sexualized messages, particularly those that are incomprehensible, can have several effects on children.  Fred Kaeser Ed.D. is the Director of Health Services for Community School District Two, NYC.
  25. ^ Chambers, Suzanna (14 April 2002). "Outrage as Argos sells G-strings for children". Mail on Sunday (DMG Media). Retrieved 22 February 2007. High Street chain Argos has been branded irresponsible for promoting a range of sexually provocative lingerie designed for primary schoolgirls. 
  26. ^ Lamb, Sharon (2006). Sex, therapy, and kids: addressing their concerns through talk and play. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 9780393704792. 
  27. ^ Shari Cookson (writer/director) and Linda Otto (producer) (2001). Living dolls: the making of a child beauty queen (Video) (TV documentary). New York: HBO.  Details.
  28. ^ Delisle, Riana (18 October 2014). "Halloween costumes are sexualizing our youngest trick-or-treaters". The Huffington Post (Canada: AOL). 
  29. ^ Staff writer (28 May 2003). "Pupils warned not to wear thongs". BBC News (UK: BBC). Retrieved 22 February 2007. Parents have been urged by a head teacher to stop their daughters wearing thongs to a primary school. 
  30. ^ Barr, Robert (in London) (16 April 2010). "Outrage at girls' padded bikinis". The Age (Melbourne, Australia: Fairfax Media). 
  31. ^ Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Juul, Anders (May 2009). "Recent decline in age at breast development: the Copenhagen Puberty Study". Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics) 123 (5): e932–e939. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2491. PMID 19403485. 
  32. ^ Lumby, Catharine; Albury, Kath (May 2010). "Introduction: children, young people, sexuality and the media". Media International Australia (Sage) 135 (1): 56–60. doi:10.1177/1329878X1013500108. 
  33. ^ Vanwesenbeeck, Ine (July 2009). "The risks and rights of sexualization: an appreciative commentary on Lerum and Dworkin's "Bad Girls Rule"". Journal of Sex Research (Taylor and Francis) 46 (4): 268–270. doi:10.1080/00224490903082694. 
  34. ^ Smith, Clarissa (January 2010). "Pornographication: a discourse for all seasons". International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics (Ingentaconnect) 6 (1): 103–108. doi:10.1386/macp.6.1.103/3. 
  35. ^ a b Egan, R. Danielle; Hawkes, Gail L. (December 2008). "Endangered girls and incendiary objects: unpacking the discourse on sexualization". Sexuality & Culture, special issue: Sexuality, Sexualization and the Contemporary Child (Springer) 12 (4): 291–311. doi:10.1007/s12119-008-9036-8. 
  36. ^ Lerum, Kari; Dworkin, Shari L. (July 2009). ""Bad Girls Rule": an interdisciplinary feminist commentary on the Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls". Journal of Sex Research (Taylor and Francis) 46 (4): 250–263. doi:10.1080/00224490903079542. 
  37. ^ Oppliger, Patrice (2008). Girls gone skank: the sexualization of girls in American culture. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company Inc. ISBN 9780786435227. 
  38. ^ Mills, Amanda (November 2011). "Book review: "Girls gone skank: the sexualization of girls in American culture" by Patrice Oppliger". Feminist Review (Palgrave Macmillan) 99 (1): e16–e17. doi:10.1057/fr.2011.45. 
  39. ^ Lorde, Audre (2000) [1984]. Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power. Tucson, Arizona: Kore Press. ISBN 9781888553109. 
    • Also available as: Lorde, Audre (2010), "Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power", in Kirk, Gwyn; Okazawa-Rey, Margo, Women's lives: multicultural perspectives, New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 168–172, ISBN 9780073512303. 

Further reading[edit]


  • Attwood, Feona (2009). Mainstreaming sex the sexualization of Western culture. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1845118278. 
  • Buckingham, David; Bragg, Sara (2004). Young people, sex and the media: the facts of life. Houndmills England New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403918222. 
  • Carey, Tanith (2011). Where has my little girl gone? How to protect your daughter from growing up too soon. London: Lion. ISBN 9780745955421.  A guide for parents on girls' body image and other issues.
  • Charles, Claire (2014). Elite girls' schooling, social class and sexualised popular culture. New York, New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781136195884. 
  • Durham, Meenakshi G. (2008). The Lolita effect: the media sexualization of young girls and what we can do about it. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press. ISBN 9781590200636.  Looks at media messges and suggests that it promotes early maturation and sexualisation of pre-adolescent girls.
  • Egan, R. Danielle (2013). Becoming sexual: a critical appraisal of the sexualization of girls. Cambridge Malden, MA: Polity Press. ISBN 9780745650739. 
  • Egan, R. Danielle; Hawkes, Gail (2010). Theorizing the sexual child in modernity. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403972576. 
  • Gil, Eliana; Johnson, Toni Cavanagh (1993). Sexualized children: assessment and treatment of sexualized children and children who molest. Rockville, Maryland: Launch Press. ISBN 9781877872075. 
  • Lamb, Sharon (2006). Sex, therapy, and kids: addressing their concerns through talk and play. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 9780393704792. 
  • Levy, Ariel (2006). Female chauvinist pigs: women and the rise of raunch culture. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0743284283.  A review of what Levy regards as a highly sexualized American culture in which women are objectified, objectify one another, and are encouraged to objectify themselves.
  • Liebau, Carol P. (2007). Prude: how the sex-obsessed culture damages girls (and America too!). New York: Center Street. ISBN 9781599956831.  Looks at sex in contemporary culture and the impact it has on young girls.
  • Lorde, Audre (2000) [1984]. Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power. Tucson, Arizona: Kore Press. ISBN 9781888553109. 
Also available as: Lorde, Audre (2010), "Uses of the erotic: the erotic as power", in Kirk, Gwyn; Okazawa-Rey, Margo, Women's lives: multicultural perspectives, New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 168–172, ISBN 9780073512303. 
  • McNair, Brian (2002). Striptease culture sex, media and the democratization of desire. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415237345. 
  • Oppliger, Patrice (2008). Girls gone skank: the sexualization of girls in American culture. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company Inc., Publishers. ISBN 9780786435227.  Discusses issues women face in American society and how those issues reflect on young girls and teens.
See also: Mills, Amanda (November 2011). "Book review: "Girls gone skank: the sexualization of girls in American culture" by Patrice Oppliger". Feminist Review (Palgrave Macmillan) 99 (1): e16–e17. doi:10.1057/fr.2011.45. 
  • Paasonen, Susanna; Nikunen, Kaarina; Saarenmaa, Laura (2007). Pornification: sex and sexuality in media culture. Oxford New York: Berg. ISBN 9781845207045. 
  • Paul, Pamela (2005). Pornified: how pornography is transforming our lives, our relationships, and our families. New York: Times Books. ISBN 9780805081329.  Pamela Paul discusses the impact of ready access to pornography on Americans.
  • Sarracino, Carmine; Scott, Kevin M. (2008). The porning of America: the rise of porn culture, what it means, and where we go from here. Boston, Mass: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807061541.  Argues that pornography has become a mainstream part of American culture.



Online resources[edit]